Southern Song (1127-1279)
The Southern Song refers to the period after Song Dynasty lost control of northern China to the Jin Dynasty. During this time, the Song court retreated south of the Yangtze River and established their capital at Lin"an (now Hangzhou).Although the Song Dynasty had lost control of the traditional birthplace of Chinese civilization along the Yellow River, the Song economy was not in ruins, as the Southern Song Empire contained 60 percent of China"s population and a majority of the most productive agricultural land.
The Southern Song Dynasty considerably bolstered its naval strength to defend its waters and land borders and to conduct maritime missions abroad.
What were the achievements of Song Dynasty?
During the Song, Imperial Examination became the primary means of recruiting officials, and the practice of appointing officials who had not taken the examinations ended. The shift to recruitment by open examinations did not mean that officials came from all social levels. Only wealthy or middle class families could afford the extensive preparation required by the examinations.
Generally speaking, however, to select officials through examinations instead of their birth was a great progress. The officials芒鈧劉 qualities were raised and social contradiction was eased. It opened a door for those people who were really competent and hard working, and marked the progress of social justice and fairness.